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منتظران مهدی - حضرت مهدی چه مدت پس از ظهور زندگی می کند و چگونه از دنیا می رود
منتظران مهدی

حضرت مهدی چه مدت پس از ظهور زندگی می کند و چگونه از دنیا می رود

پرسشی در این جا مطرح می شود که حضرت مهدی(ع) چه مدت پس از ظهور زندگی می کند و چگونه از دنیا می رود.

آنچه مسلّم است، مدت حکومت و حاکمیت مهدی(ع)،

حضرت مهدی چه مدت پس از ظهور زندگی می کند و چگونه از دنیا می رود

پرسشی در این جا مطرح می شود که حضرت مهدی(ع) چه مدت پس از ظهور زندگی می کند و چگونه از دنیا می رود.

آنچه مسلّم است، مدت حکومت و حاکمیت مهدی(ع)، باید به اندازه ای باشد که پایه های ظلم و ستمگری ویران گردد و بر جای آن بنیاد عدل و داد استوار گردد بدون تردید، این مسائله اساسی، زمان می طلبد و فرصت می خواهد. کاری است کارستان و بنا نیست که همه امور را آن حضرت براساس معجزه و روش غیر عادی به پیش ببرد، بنابراین عقل و شواهد دیگری اقتضا می کند که آن حضرت مدتی طولانی حیات داشته باشد تا بتواند در این دنیای گسترده، تحولی همه جانبه و فراگیر، ایجاد کند و جهان را به اسلام و ارزشهای اسلامی آشنا سازد.

اما این مدت چه اندازه به طول می انجام، خیلی روشن نیست، روایات وارده از طریق عامه و خاصه، گوناگون است:

پنج، بیست، سی و چهل سال، در منابع اهل سنت [1] .

نوزده، بیست، سیصد و نه سال، درمنابع شیعی [2] .

اما این که چگونه از این جهان خواهد رفت، به مرگ طبیعی یا غیر طبیعی؟

اختلافهایی در روایات به چشم می خورد.

برخی از روایات می گویند که آن حضرت مدتی حکومت خواهد کرد سپس وفات می کند و مسلمانان بر او نماز می گذارند. [3] .

از بعضی از روایات استفاده می شود که مرگ آن حضرت طبیعی نخواهد بود و به دست جنایتکاران، با مشخصاتی که برای آنان درروایات ذکر شده، به شهادت می رسد [4] .

بررسی و قضاوت در این امر مبتنی بر دو مسائله است:

1. آیا همه امامان معصوم(ع) شهید می شوند، یا امکان دارد که به مرگ طبیعی از دنیا بروند. در فرض اول، دلیل و مستند آن چیست؟

2. اگر در سایر ائمه(ع) پذیرفتیم که همه به شهادت رسیده اند، نسبت به امام زمان(ع) چه خواهد شد؟ اجل طبیعی یا شهادت؟

بدون تردید، امامان معصوم(ع) تا زمان امام عصر(ع)، همگی معاصر با سردمداران پلید و حاکمان قسی القلب و خون آشامی بوده اند، آسایش و آرامش نداشته اند.

اما آیا همه آن بزرگواران، به شهادت رسیده اند، یا خیر، برخی از آنان به مرگ طبیعی از دنیا رفته اند، بین علمای شیعی نزدیک به زمان معصوم، اختلاف است:

شیخ صدوق بر این باور است:

(همه معصومین(ع)، به اجل غیر طبیعی از دنیا رفته اند... کسی که چنین عقیده نداشته باشد از ما نیست.) [5] .

شیخ مفید، درجواب صدوق می نویسد:

(فاما ما ذکره ابوجعفر، رضی اللّه عنه، من مضی نبینا والائئمة(ع) بالسّم والقتل فمنه ثابت ومنه مالم یثبت والمقطوع به ان امیرالمؤمنین(ع) الحسن(ع) والحسین(ع) خرجوا من الدنیا بالقتل ولم یمت احدهم حتف انفه وممن مضی بعدهم مسموماً موسی بن جعفر(ع) ویقوی فی النفس امرالرضا(ع) وان کان فیه شک، فلا طریق الی الحکم فیمن عداهم بانهم سموا اواغتیلوا اوقتلوا صبراً، فالخبر بذلک یجری مجری الائرجاف ولیس بتیقنه سبیل) [6] .

آنچه را که شیخ صدوق در رابطه با درگذشت پیامبر(ص) وامامان معصوم(ع) به ستم و قتل گفته، برخی از آنها ثابت است و برخی مشکوک. اما شهادت امیرالمؤمنین علی و امام حسن و امام حسین(ع) به قتل حتمی و قطعی است. پس از ایشان، مسمومیّت و شهادت موسی بن جعفر(ع) نیزقطعی و مسلم است. درباره امام رضا(ع) نیز قول قوی مسمومیت و شهادت ایشان است، گرچه جای تردید هست. اما در دیگر ائمه(ع) راهی برای اثبات این که آنان به وسیله ستم یا ترور و یا قتل صبر، به شهادت رسیده اند، در دست نیست.

آنچه از راه احساسات گفته می شود، یقین آور نخواهد بود.

علامه مجلسی پس از آن که روایات را زیر عنوان: (انّهم علیهم السلام لایموتون الا بالشهادة) می آورد، نظر شیخ مفید را مورد نقد و بررسی قرار می دهد و می نویسد:

(با توجه به اخبار فراوانی که مبنی بر شهادت ائمه(ع) در دست است و نیز نمونه های خاصی که در برخی از آنان وجود دارد، نمی توان آن را نفی کرد. البته غیر از علی و فاطمه و حسن و حسین و موسی بن جعفر و علی بن موسی الرضا(ع) که دلیل قطعی بر شهادت آنان دادیم در دیگر ائمه(ع) چنین دلیل قطعی نداریم، اما دلیل برنفی هم نداریم و قرائن و و شواهد تاریخی مؤید شهادت آنان نیز هست. شاید مقصود شیخ مفید هم نفی قطع و تواتراست، نه ردّ و نفی اصل مسائله. [7] ) بزرگانی که به شهادت همه امامان معصوم(ع)، به دست جنایتکاران قائل هستند دلایلی دارند،از جمله:امام رضا می فرماید:

(ما منا الامقتول) [8] .

یا امام حسن مجتبی(ع) می فرماید:

(والله لقد عهد الینا رسول اللّه(ص) ان هذا الائمر علیکم اثنا عشر اماماً من ولد علی وفاطمة، مامنا الامسموم او مقتول) [9] .

به خدا سوگند، پیامبر(ص) به ما این عهد و وعده را داد که امر امامت را دوازده تن از فرزندان علی و فاطمه(ع) به دست خواهند گرفت و هر یک از آنان، مسموم یا مقتول خواهند شد.

قائلین به شهادت ائمه، اصل کلی رااز این روایات استفاده کرده اند و بر این نظرند که ساختار بدنی پیامبر(ص) و امامان(ع) به گونه ای است که زمینه و ظرفیت حیات و عمر طولانی را دارند، مگر عارضه و حادثه ای از خارج بر آنان تحمیل شود [10] .

ولی برخی از بزرگان کلیت این احادیث: (مامنا الامسموم او مقتول) را نپذیرفته اند.

طبرسی می نویسد:

(بسیاری از اصحاب ما، بر این باورند که امام حسن عسگری(ع) و سایر ائمه(ع) با شهادت از دنیا رفته اند و بر این معنی به روایتی از امام صادق(ع) استدلال کرده اند که: (ما منا الامقتول او شهید) والله اعلم بحقیقة ذلک). [11] .

جمله اخیر ایشان گویای این معنی است که شهادت همه ائمه(ع) در نظر ایشان قطعی و مسلّم نبوده است.

با توجه به نکات یاد شده روشن شد که اگر نظر شیخ صدوق را بپذیریم و به روایات (مامنا الامسموم او مقتول) پایبند باشیم و آنها را از نظر سندبپذیریم، امام زمان(ع) به دست جنایتکاران به شهادت می رسد. ولی اگر قول شیخ مفید را بپذیریم و به روایات: (مامنا الامسموم او مقتول) پاینبد نباشیم باید بگوییم که چگونگی مرگ آن عزیز، روشن نیست. واللّه اعلم.





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آیا حاضر به خرید پک های نرم افزار (لرد-کینگ-دانشمند)با تخفیف 20درصد از این وبلاگ هستید؟







آیا حاضر به خرید پک های نرم افزار (لرد-کینگ-دانشمند)با تخفیف 20درصد از این وبلاگ هستید؟







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